Bass Lake 411

 

Bass Lake is located in the Sierra National Forest, of Madera County, California, approximately 14 mi (23 km) south of the entrance to Yosemite National Park. The lake is approximately four miles long and one-half mile wide.

 Releases from the dam drive the hydro-electric [3], and is referenced as Crane Valley Lake.San Joaquin RiverThe lake is formed by the construction of the Crane Valley Dam across Willow Creek, a tributary to the powerplant operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Company.[4] The 145 ft (44 m) concrete gravity dam was completed in 1910 by Pacific Gas and Electric.[5]

Most of the land around the lake is part of the Sierra National Forest. The U.S. Forest Service designated the lake an official Recreation Area and has developed campgrounds and picnic areas on the south shore of the lake. The north shore of the lake is primarily made up of private cabins and homes of the unincorporated communityBass Lake, California, with a year-round population of 2,195

 A hundred years ago Bass Lake was not a lake at all, but a lush meadow surrounded by pine tree covered hills and mountains. Chuckchansi Indians have inhabited the area for Thousands of years. The Mono Indians came to the area about 200 years ago. A detachment of the Mariposa Battalion came across the valley in 1851 shortly after their discovery of Yosemite Valley. After observing flocks of what they thought were Sandhill Cranes, they decided to name the large meadow area Crane Valley. The large grey-blue birds were actually Great Blue Herons which still populate the area. Through Crane Valley flowed Willow Creek, a tributary of the San Joaquin River. In 1895, a plan was devised to use the waters of Willow Creek to generate hydroelectric power for residents of the great San Joaquin Valley.

The San Joaquin Electric Company was formed and the first earthen dam was built in Crane Valley in 1901. Mule-drawn freight wagons carried machinery and supplies up the mountain and went down loaded with timber that had been cleared from the reservoir site.

In 1902 the San Joaquin Light & Power Corporation was formed to purchase the electric company and later the electric operations of the rival gas company. The dam was enlarged in 1905 and the present Dam was built in 1910 (145 feet high).

The lake was called Crane Valley Reservoir for many years but the name was eventually changed when a small Bass Lake lumber operation polluted the lake, killing all the fish that were in it. The lumber company was ordered by the government to replace all the fish that were lost. The chosen fish were Bass, hence the new name -

Bass Lake.

Bass Lake is now owned and operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the waters of the lake are still used today to generate electricity, irrigate farmland in the Central Valley and for numerous recreational activities. The lake is considered a "warm water" lake with water temperatures reaching near 80 degrees during the summer months. (written by USFS)

objections, Williams Resort was bought out for $5.1 Million Dollars.it'sIn 1984 Henry "Barney" Bernard formed the Bass Lake Homeowners Association. With a lot of hard work and help from the County of Madera, sublease owners were able to buy out the Williams Resort. A Bond assessment program was implemented in 1989, money

Williams subleased these informally divided lots to persons who built cabins on the leased land. The Cabins were owned, but were built on leased land. The subleases were set to expire in 2012. because of this arrangement, the cabins were, for the most part, modest. As 2012 was getting closer, maintenance was deferred and very few cabins were remolded improved. It was very unclear that PG&E would grant Williams another master lease. It was equally unclear if Williams would be reasonable in renegotiating renewal of sublease.

Negotiations commenced with PG&E and again, after lengthy negotiations and bargaining, PG&E sold 125 Acres to the Bass Lake Homeowners Association for 16.3 Million Dollars. This took another bond issue to raise the money. Liens on every piece of property which went to the bond for financing were put in place. People started getting their deeds to their land in 1992. Again in this process, Madera County assisted in many ways, supporting the bond issue, serving as a facilitator, holding the land until it could be surveyed, officially subdivided and the deeds issued, etc.
Since sublease holders became real property owners without the fear of loosing their investment, the community was reborn with a boom of new building. Old cabins were torn down and others remolded. Property values have soared with Lake Front homes selling for over $5 Million Dollars.Much of the area surrounding Bass Lake is devoted to the tourism industry. The south entrance to Yosemite National Park is only fourteen miles away. The lake water typically reaches 80 °F (27 °C) during the summer months. Fishingswimmingwater skiing, and wapersonal master lease which expired in 2013. The Land had been informally subdivided into 550 residential lots, some commercial property and the road network.long termPrior to 1991, The Pines Tract consisted of 255 undivided acres of land leased by Bud Williams (Williams Resort) from PG&E.
Bass Lake was completed in 1910 to protect property down stream. Now it generates 27 megawatts of power through 5 downstream power houses and is owned by Pacific Gas & Electric. It has developed into major resort and recreation facility.

 

Basic technique of Water Skiing

 

Water skiers rising out of the water on 1 or 2 skis.

Water skiers can start their ski set in one of two ways: wet is the most common, but dry is possible. Water skiing typically begins with a deep water start. The skier enters the water with their skis on or they jump in without the skis on their feet, have the skis floated to them, and put them on while in the water. Most times it can be easier to put the skis on when they are wet. Once the skier has their skis on they will be thrown a tow rope from the boat, which they position between their skis. In the deep water start, the skier crouches down in the water while holding onto the ski rope; they are in a cannonball position with their legs tucked into their chest, with skis pointing towards the sky and approximately 30 cm (0.98 ft) of the ski out of the water. The skier can also perform a "dry start" by standing on the shore or a pier; however, this type of entry is recommended for professionals only. When the skier is ready (usually acknowledged by them yelling "hit it"), the driver accelerates the boat. As the boat accelerates and takes up the slack on the rope, the skier allows the boat to pull him/her out of the water by applying some muscle strength to get him/her into an upright body position.

By leaning back and keeping the legs slightly bent, the skis will eventually plane out and the skier will start to glide over the water. The skier turns by shifting weight left or right. The skier's body weight should be balanced between the balls of the feet and the heels. While being towed, the skier's arms should be relaxed but still fully extended so as to reduce stress on the arms. The handle can be held vertically or horizontally, depending on whichever position is more comfortable for the skier.

baIn addition to the driver and the skier, a third person known as the spotter or the observer should be present. The spotter's job is to watch the skier and inform the driver if the skier falls. The spotter usually sits in a chair on the boat facing ckwards to see the skier. The skier and the boat's occupants communicate using hand signals (see the Safety section below).

Water skiing can take place on any type of water – such as a river, lake, or ocean – but calmer waters are ideal for recreational skiing. There should be a -metre-wide (200 ft) skiing space and the water should be at least 1.5 to 1.8 metres (5 to 6 ft) deep. There must be enough space for the water skier to safely "get up," or successfully be in the upright skiing position. Skiers and their boat drivers must also have sufficient room to avoid hazards.

Skis

Younger skiers generally start out on children's skis, which consist of two skis tied together at their back and front. These connections mean that less strength is necessary for the child to keep the skis together. Sometimes these skis can come with a handle to help balance the skier as well.Children's skis are short – usually (45–60 in) long – reflecting the skier's smaller size. Once a person is strong enough to hold the skis together themselves there are various options depending upon their skill level and weight.

al the heavier the person, the bigger the skis will be. Length will also vary based on the type of water skiing being performed; jump skis, for example, are longer than skis used in regular straight-line recreational skiing or competitive slalom and trick skiing. A trick ski is around 40 inches and wider than combo skis. Again the skier rides it with his or her dominant foot in front. It has no fins which GenerallyWater skiers can use two skis (one on each foot, also called "combo skiing") or one ski (dominant foot in front of the other foot, also called "slalom skiing"). lows for spins to be performed.

Boat

This section describes water skiing behind a boat. For information about skiing with a cable installation, see the related Wikipedia article on cable skiing.

Competition skiing uses specifically designed towboats. Most towboats have a very small hull and a flat bottom to minimize wake. A true tournament ski boat will have a direct drive motor shaft that centers the weight in the boat for an optimal wake shape. However, some recreational ski boats will have the motor placed in the back of the boat (v-drive), which creates a bigger wake. Permitted towboats used for tournament water skiing are the Mastercraft ProStar, MasterCraft ProStar X, Nautique 200, Malibu Response TXi, and Centurion Carbon Pro. These boats have ability to pull skiers for trick skiing, jumping, and slalom.

Recreational boats can serve as water skiing platforms as well as other purposes such as cruising and fishing. Popular boat types include bowriders, deckboatscuddy cabins, and jetboats.

The towboat must be capable of maintaining the proper speed. Speeds vary with the skier's weight, experience level, comfort level, and type of skiing). Competition speeds have a wide range: as slow as 22 km/h (14 mph; 12) For example, a child on two skis would require speeds of 21–26 km/h (13–16 mph), whereas an adult on one ski might require as high as 58 km/h (36 mph). Barefoot skiing requires speeds of approximately 72 km/h (45 mph; 39 kn) up to 58 km/h (36 mph; 31 kn) for slalom water skiing, and approaching 190 km/h (120 mph; 100 kn) in water ski racing.

The boat must be equipped with a ski rope and handle. The tow rope must be sufficiently long for maneuvering, with a recommended length of 23 metres (75 ft). (within tolerance) although length varies widely depending on the type of water skiing and the skier's skill level. Competition requirements on rope construction have changed over the years, from "quarter-inch polypropylene rope" in 1992. to the 2003 flexibility as long as the same specification is used "for the entire event." The rope and handle are anchored to the boat and played out at the stern. This anchor point on a recreation boat is commonly a tow ring or cleat, mounted on the boat's stern.[citation needed] For more dedicated skiers, a metal ski pylon is placed in the center of the boat in front of the engine to connect the skier. This pylon is mounted securely, since a skilled slalom skier can put a considerable amount of tension in the ski rope and the pylon.

Safety measures

As water skiing is a potentially dangerous sport, safety is important.

life  regardless of swimming ability.[11] Specially-designed life jackets or ski vests allow movement needed for the sport while still providing jacketThere should be a 200 feet (61 m) wide skiing space and the water should be at least 5 to 6 feet (1.5 to 1.8 m) deep. The towboat should stay at least 100 feet (30 m) from docks, swim areas, and the shore, and other boats should steer clear of skiers by at least 100 feet. Without proper space and visibility skiing can be extremely floatation for a downed or injured skier. The most common water ski injuries involve the lower legs, such as the knee, because a fall at high speed can create irregular angles of collision between the skier's body and the water surface. Another common cause of injury is colliding with objects on or near the water, like docks.

The tow boat must contain at least two people. The driver maintains a steady course, free of obstacles to the skier. The observer continually observes the skier, relays the condition of the skier to the boat driver, and if necessary, raises the "skier down" warning flag, as required, when a skier is in the water, returning to the boat, or in some localities, the entire time the skier is out of the boat. The skier and observer should agree on a set of standard hand-signals for easy communication: stop, speed up, turn, I'm OK, skier in the water, etc.

History

Samuelson experimented with different positions on the skis for several days until 2 July 1922. Samuelson discovered that leaning Lake City, Minnesota in Lake Pepin used a pair of boards as skis and a clothesline as a towrope on Ralph Samuelson skiing was invented in 1922 when ckwards in the water with ski tips up and poking out of the water at the tip was the optimal method. His brother Ben towed him and they reached a speed of 32 kilometres per hour (20 mph)Samuelson spent 15 years performing shows and teaching water skiing to people in the United States.

Samuelson went through several iterations of equipment in his quest to ski on water. His first equipment consisted of barrel staves for skis. He later tried snow skis, but finally fabricated his own design out of lumber with bindings made of strips of leather. The ski rope was made from a long window sash cord. Samuelson never patented any of his ski equipment.

The first patent for water skis was issued to Fred Waller, of Huntington, NY, on 27 October 1925, for skis he developed independently and marketed as "Dolphin Akwa-Skees." Waller's skis were constructed of kiln-dried mahogany, as were some boats at that time. Jack Andresen patented the first trick ski, a shorter, fin-less water ski, in 1940.

 developed his own water skis on the West Coast, never having heard of Samuelson or Waller. In 1941 Don Ibsen founded The Olympic Water Ski Club in Seattle, WA. It was the first such club in America. Ibsen, a showman Don IbsenIn 1928 and entrepreneur, was one of the earliest manufacturers of water skis and was a leading enthusiast and promoter of the sport. In 1983 he was inducted into the Water Ski Hall of Fame in Winterhaven, FL.

The sport of water skiing remained an obscure activity for several years after 1922, until Samuelson performed water ski shows from Michigan to Florida. The American Water Ski Association formally acknowledged Samuelson in 1966 as the first recorded water skier in history. Samuelson was also the first ski racer, slalom skier, and the first organizer of a water ski show.

Swedish engineer Gunnar Ljungström (1905-1999) pioneered water skiing in slalom moves from 1929. A demonstrating behind a motorboat was made to the Swedish public at the 100th anniversary of the Royal Swedish Yacht Club in Sandhamn outside Stockholm in 1930.rallell

Water skiing gained international attention in the hands of famed promoter, Dick Pope, Sr., often referred to as the "Father of American Water Skiing" and founder of Cypress Gardens in Winter Haven, Florida. Pope cultivated a distinct image for his theme-park, which included countless photographs of the water skiers featured at the park. These photographs began appearing in magazines worldwide in the 1940s and 1950s, helping to bring international attention to the sport for the first time. He was also the first person to complete a jump on water skis, jumping over a wooden ramp in 1928, for a distance of 25 feet. His son, Dick Pope, Jr., is the inventor of bare-foot skiing. Both men are in the Water Ski Hall of Fame. Today, Winter Haven, Florida, with its famous Chain of Lakes, remains an important city for water skiing, with several major ski schools operating there.

Water skiing has developed over time. Water skiing tournaments and water skiing competitions have been organized. As an exhibition sport, water skiing was included in the 1972 Olympics. The first National Show Ski Tournament was held in 1974, and the first ever National Intercollegiate Water Ski Championships were held in 1979. The Home CARE US National Water Ski Challenge, the first competition for people with disabilities, was organized ten years later.

The first patented design of a water ski which included carbon fiber was that of Hani Audah at SPORT labs in 2001. Its first inclusion in tournament slalom skiing was in 2003.

Disciplines

3-event tournament water skiing

In the United States, there are over 900 sanctioned water ski competitions each summer. Orlando, Florida is considered to be the competitive 3-event waterskiing capital of the world.[27] Competitive water skiing consists of three events: slalom, jump, and trick.

Slalom

 

17-year-old Toronto skier Chantal Singer slaloming at the 2012 Canadian National Waterski Championships in Calgary, Alberta

In an attempt to become as agile as possible, slalom water skiers use only one ski with feet oriented forward, one in front of the other. Slalom skis are narrow and long, at 57–70 inches (145–178 cm) depending on the height and weight of the skier. The two forward-facing bindings vary: they can be made of rubber or thick plastic, and they can be designed more like a snow ski binding or more like a roller blade boot.

Slalom skiing involves a multi-buoy course that the skier must go around in order to complete the pass. A complete slalom water ski course consists of 26 buoys. There are entrance gates at the beginning and end of the course that the skier must between, and there are 6 turn buoys that the skier must navigate around in a zigzag pattern. The remainder of the buoys are for the driver to ensure the boat goes straight down the center of the course. For a tournament to be sanctioned as 'record capable' by the International Waterski & Wakeboard Federation (IWWF), the entire course must be surveyed prior to competition by a land surveyor to ensure its accuracy. The drivers boat path must be verified as well to ensure that all skiers are getting a fair pull.

Every consecutive pass is harder than the pass before it. When a pass is completed, the boat is sped up by 3 kilometres per hour (2 mph) until the maximum speed has been reached for the division, based on the skier's gender and age (55 kilometres per hour (34 mph) for women and 58 kilometres per hour (36 mph) for men). After the skier has run their maximum speed pass, the rope is shortened at specific increments to make it more difficult to reach the buoy width. In a tournament, the boat speeds up or the rope shortens until the skier fails to complete the slalom course by falling or not getting around a buoy.

A skier's score is based upon the number of successful buoys cleared, the speed of the boat, and the length of the rope. In a tournament, skiers choose the starting boat speed and rope length (with a maximum length of 22.86 metres (75 ft)). Professional water skiers will typically start at the max speed of 58 kilometres per hour (36 mph) with a rope that has already been shortened to 13 metres (43 ft). The skier with the most buoys wins the competition.

The turn buoys are positioned 11.5 metres (38 ft) away from the center of the slalom course so as the rope is shortened beyond that the skiers are required to use the momentum generated through their turns to swing up on the side of the boat and reach out in order to get their ski around the next buoy. At this rope length the skier's body is experiencing intense isometric contractions and extreme upper body torque with loads of up to 600 kg as they begin accelerating after rounding a turn buoy. Their top speeds will generally be more than double the boat's speed, which means that the Pro men can reach speeds in excess of 116 kilometres per hour (72 mph) and each turn will generally generate around 4 g of force. Essentially, slalom water skiers are using their body as a lever, which allows them to withstand loads that would otherwise not be possible for the human body.

Jump

Water ski jumpers use two long skis to ride over a water ski jump in an attempt to travel the longest distance. In a tournament, skiers are given three attempts to hit the ramp. The winner is the skier who travels the farthest calculated[16] distance and successfully rides away. There are no style points, simply distance.

Water ski jumps have specific dimensions and the ramp height is adjustable. Skiers may choose their boat speed and ramp height, although there are maximums based the skier's gender and age. Professional ski jumpers have a maximum boat speed of 58 km/h (36 mph; 31 kn to generate speed and angle. When the jumper hits the ramp they will generally be going over 112). The ramp height must be between 1.5 and 1.8 m (5 and 6 ft). As a professional jumper approaches the ramp they will zigzag behind the boat in a series of cutskilometres per hour (70 mph) and the load they have generated on the rope can be over 600 kilograms (1,300 lb).

Trick

The Trick competition has been described as the most technical of the three classic water skiing events.

Trick skiing uses small, oval-shaped water skis. Beginners generally use two skis while more advanced skiers use one. The shorter, wider Trick ski has a front binding facing forward and a back binding facing at a 45°. It has a smooth bottom that allows it to turn over the surface of the water. According to official 2013 Tournament Rules for 3-event competition in the United States and the Pan-Am Games, skis used in the Tricks event must be a single ski without fins, although molded rails/grooves less than 6.4 mm (1⁄4 in) are allowed, as are a foot pad cemented to the ski as a place for the rear foot; in addition, the ski must float with all bindings, fins, etc., installed.[citation needed] The ski's configuration allows the skier to perform both surface and air tricks in quick succession.

In a tournament, skiers are given two 20-second runs during which they perform a series of their chosen tricks. One pass is for hand tricks, which includes surface turns, rotations over the wake, and flips. The second pass is for toe tricks, which are done by doing wake turns and rotations with only a foot attaching them to the handle; the foot is either in the toehold part of the handle or, professionally, attached to the rope.[28] A trick cannot be repeated.[28] Each trick has a point value. A panel of five judges assesses which tricks were completed correctly and assigns that predetermined point value to each successfully completed trick. The skier with the most points wins.

Barefoot water skiing

 

Barefoot skiing on Lake Ozonia in the Adirondacks

Main article: Barefoot skiing

A barefoot water skier should use a wetsuit instead of a life jacket because the wetsuit covers more of the body in case of a fall at high speed. The wetsuit also allows the skier to do starts in the water where they lie on their back. Unlike a normal life jacket, the "barefoot wetsuit" allows the skier to glide on their back on top of the water once they reach a high enough speed. The barefoot wetsuit is generally thicker in the back, rear, and chest for flotation and impact absorption.

Barefoot skiing requires a higher speed because the skier's feet are smaller than skis, providing less lift. A rule of thumb for barefoot water skiing speed in miles per hour is (M/10)+18=S, where M equals the skier's weight in pounds. In other words, a 175 lb (79 kg) person would have to divide 175/10, which is 17.5; then simply add 17.5+18 which equals 35.5 miles per hour (57.1 km/h).

Another tool used in barefoot water skiing is the barefoot boom. It provides a stable aluminum bar on the side of the boat where a short rope can be attached or the skier can grip the bar itself. The skier is within earshot of the people in the boat, providing a good platform for teaching. Once the bare footer is good enough, he/she will go behind the boat with a long rope.

A beginner can wear shoes to decrease the necessary speed, lessen foot injury from choppy water, learn better technique, and master the sport.

Show skiing

Water ski pyramid with 18 skiers Lake Zumbro, Minnesota, August 2010

Show skiing is a type of water skiing where skiers perform tricks somewhat similar to those of gymnasts while being pulled by the boat. Traditional ski show acts include pyramids, ski doubles, freestyle jumping, and swivel skiing. Show skiing is normally performed in water ski shows, with elaborate costumes, choreography, music, and an announcer. Show teams may also compete regionally or nationally. In the USA, each team member must be a member of USA Water Ski to compete.

The first organized show occurred in 1928. The bi-annual World Show Ski Championship was inaugurated in September 2012 in Janesville, Wisconsin.[31][32] Past competition included teams from Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, and the United States.

Freestyle jumping

Freestyle jumping is often related to show skiing. The goal is to go off the jump, perform one of many stunts, and successfully land back on the water. The most common freestyle stunts – in order of usual progression – would be a li (360°), a flip (forwards), a gainer (a back flip), and a möbius (back flip with 360°).he

 

Ski racing in Australia

Ski racing

Water ski racing consists of a number of water skiers who race around a set course. It can occur in a 'circle' or lap format type racing - which is the format used for wold championship events, held ever four years, or on river courses offering longer distances and higher speeds.

Australia is the identified home of ski racing, being responsible for some of the worlds biggest races, including the worlds fastest races, as well as a history of the majority of skier world championships.

Current format world championship racing involves men's and women's formula 1 races (unrestricted), and men's and women formula 2 races (limited to single rig, 300 hp outboards, as well as junior classes for under 16's.

Some of the biggest races in the world include the Southern 80, in Echuca, Victoria, Australia, the diamond race, in Belgium, the Catalina ski race, in Long Beach, USA, and the Sydney Bridge to Bridge in Sydney, Australia.

Marathon

The marathon event consists of each skier having to ski on all 6 pieces of equipment. – Single ski, Double skis, Single, Single finless, Double finless, a freeboard (a ski without bindings), and a fence paling.

Disabled

Disabled water skiing uses equipment or other adaptations to allow disabled people to compete in standard 3 event skiing. Seated water skis, special handles, audio slalom gear, and other adaptations are all used for different disabilities.

 

A personal watercraft (PWC), also called water scooter, jetski, and comically a atercycle, is a recreational watercraft that the rider sits or stands on, rather than inside of, as in a boat. PWCs have two style categories, first and most popular being a "sit down" or "couch" where the rider uses the watercraft mainly sitting down, and the watercraft typically holds two or more people. The second style is a "stand-up", where the rider uses the watercraft standing up. The stand-up styles are built for one rider and are used more for doing tricks, racing, and use in competitions. Both styles have an inboard engine driving a pump-jet that has a screw-shaped impeller to create thrust for propulsion and steering. Most are designed for two or three people, though four-passenger models exist.bo

Personal watercraft are often referred by the trademarked brand names Jet Ski (referring to personal watercraft manufactured by Kawasaki), WaveRunner, or Sea-Doo.

The United States Coast Guard defines a personal watercraft, amongst other criteria, as a jet-drive boat, less than 13 feet (4 m) in length, in order to exclude from that definition more conventional-sized jet-boats.[1] There is a wide variety of "jetboats" many of which exceed 30–40 feet (9–12 m) in length.

 

 

 

History

 

The first stand-up prototype

 Two thousand Vincent Amanda, and the German Wave Roller. Vincent Water scooters - as they were originally termed - were first developed in the United Kingdom and Europe in the mid-1950s, with models such as the British 200cc propellor-driven Amandas were exported to Australia, Asia, Europe and the United States. In the 1960s, the idea was developed further by Clayton Jacobson II of Byron Bay, Australia. Originally a motocross enthusiast, Jacobson's idea was designed in the mid-1960s, powered by an internal pump-jet rather than an outboard motor, made of all aluminum, and had a fixed, upright handle. Jacobson eventually quit his job in banking to devote himself to developing the idea, and had a working prototype by 1965. It differed slightly from modern personal watercraft but had definite similarities. He completed a second prototype a year later made of fiberglass. The first Clayton-type PWC to reach the market was designed by Bombardier in the late 1960s. Bombardier's original designs were not very popular and Bombardier left the business before 1970.

 and appeared on the US market in 1973. These were mass-produced boats to be used by only one rider. While they are still produced today, the more popular brand) in 1972,Jet Ski (under the KawasakiStand-up PWCs were first produced by the Japanese company design, is the sit down variety of PWC. These sit down runabouts have been produced by Kawasaki (Jetski), Bombardier (Sea-Doo), Yamaha (WaveRunner), Honda (AquaTrax), Polaris (Sealion) and Arctic Cat (Tigershark). As of 2010, the major manufacturers of PWCs were Kawasaki, Bombardier and Yamaha. Both Yamaha and Kawasaki continue to sell stand-up models but it is a small percentage of the overall market.

Sport

 

Stand-up PWC racing scene. 

P1 AquaX is considered the best personal watercraft racing series in the world, due to its high level of competition. The Series is based on strength and skill, so only the best make it through the ranks and to the top.

The first series was launched in the UK, in May 2011 by London-based sports promoter Powerboat P1. The series grew quickly by attracting a mix of new and current racers to a new type of racing and in 2013, P1 rolled out a second series in the USA. Such was the uptake that the original format needed revising to cope with the influx of new riders and by the end of 2015 over 400 riders from 11 countries had registered to compete in an AquaX event.

The Series continues to expand quickly around the world.

Non-recreational uses

 

PWC with rescue platform.

 

Training preparedness Rescue Water Craft

 

PWC used by the Italian police in Venice

PWCs are small, fast, easily handled, fairly easy to use, affordable, and their propulsion systems do not have external propellers, making them safer for swimmers and wildlife. For these reasons, they are preferred for non-recreational use over small motorboats.

PWC's are used for Jet Ski fishing or PWC fishing and is the fastest growing segments in the industry. They are fast, safe and economical and are being chosen over traditional boats.

Lifeguards use PWCs equipped with rescue platforms to rescue water users who get into difficulties and carry them back to shore. Rescuers use PWCs to pick up flood survivors.

PWCs are used for law enforcement. Due to their speed and excellent maneuverability, police and rangers use them to enforce laws in coastal waters, lakes and rivers.[citation needed]

A PWC combined with a wash-reduction system, carrying waterproof loudspeaker equipment and GPS for instructions and distance measurement, has purportedly[citation needed] been used by assistant coaches for rowing sports on the River Tyne.

PWCs are used by the U.S. Navy as surface targets.[remotable with a two-way link. Its small shipboard footprint allows it to be stored and deployed from the smallest of vessels, and it has been used for target practice for everything from 5" citation needed] Equipped with GPS, electronic compass, radar reflector, and a radio modem, the PWC is fully to small arms.[citation needed]

 

Some personal watercraft carry as many as four passengers, contain up to 300 horsepower (220 kW) engines, reach speeds of up to 70 miles per hour (110 km/h), carry 25 US gallons(95 l) of fuel, and feature amenities such as sun pads and extra padded cruising seats.

The American PWC industry reached an agreement with the United States Coast Guard in 1999 (see fall, 1999 BSAC Minutes), agreeing to limit the speed of a PWC to 65 mph in a specified test protocol, but four-stroke but more polluting. Simple two-stroke engines are lubricated on a "total loss" method, mixing lubricating oil with their fuel; they are estimated to create exhaust in excess of 25% of their fuel and oil unburned in addition to the products of incomplete and complete combustion. engines, which are smaller and lighter than two-stroke cycleBefore 1991, PWC emissions were unregulated in the United States. Many were powered by cycle engines

. The agency began a dialogue with manufacturers in 1991, resulting in regulations that were enacted in 1996. These regulations, set to phase in between 1998 and 2006, are considered averaging internal combustion engines to begin regulating all recreational marine engines including PWC, as well as other off-road U.S. Environmental Protection Agency allowed the Clean Air ActThe 1990 amendments to the standards, because they allow manufacturers to offset more-polluting engines in their product range by offering other engines that exceed the standard. California and subsequently New York have, in turn, adopted more stringent regulations than the federal standard. Subsequent to 2004 when the maximum emission reductions required by California became effective, the substantial majority of new PWC units sold throughout the United States have met the lower emissions standards established by California.

 

Even the largest PWC, the Sea-DooLRV, can be easily loaded onto a trailer and transported from one body of water to another.

To meet these regulations, manufacturers have adopted a variety of improvements, including increased use of four-stroke engines, the use of direct injection for two-strokes, and the use of catalytic converters and other pollution-curbing measures that overall have reduced emissions by approximately 75% compared to pre-regulation models.

In some areas, such as Lake Tahoe, All outboard motors and PWCs are permitted if they meet the 2006 EPA regulations. A number of pre-2006 model year PWC meet that EPA standard.

 claim that more rapid progress could be Bluewater Network and the Surfrider FoundationEnvironmental groups such as the made, and that the diminishing numbers of pre-1998 watercraft in use continue to emit substantial pollution.

Against this, industry groups such as the Personal Watercraft Industry Association point out that environmental groups continue to cite pollution levels of pre-regulation watercraft and ignore the improvements made to newer models; and furthermore, that personal watercraft are unfairly singled out when they are no more polluting than other powered boats.

Hazards

Main article: PWC-related accidents

 

PWC warning label indicating risk of body cavity injuries

Apart from the obvious hazards of collisions and mechanical breakdowns common to all vehicles, operating or riding a PWC can involve a risk of orifice injuries.[11][12][13] These injuries are typical of the kinds of injuries that waterskiers experience as a result of falling into the water at speed. Such injuries can occur from simply falling in the water at speed or they can occur from the output end of the pump jet. A rider who falls (or is ejected) off the back can land directly in the path of the PWC's high-pressure jet of water. Unless a rider is appropriately dressed in garments made out of a strong, thick substance like neoprene (as is commonly found in wetsuits), the jet may penetrate any orifice it reaches. All major PWC manufacturers warn about this risk and recommend that passengers wear wet suit bottoms or equivalent protection. The American Waterski Racing Association recommends that all of their racers wear wet suit bottoms for this same reason.

Such orifice injuries can result in permanent disability or death. For example, in 2006, the California Court of Appeal for the First Appellate District upheld a $3.7 million Napa County jury verdict against Polaris Industries arising out of one such incident (which had devastating effects on the victim's lower abdomen).[17] It is also possible for multiple riders on the same PWC to sustain orifice injuries in a single accident, as actually occurred in a 2007 accident at Mission Bay which resulted in a San Diego County jury verdict affirmed in full on appeal in 2014.

While also rare, spinal injuries can occur while surf jumping and, potentially, wake jumping. The PWC manufacturers owner's manuals all include warnings regarding jumping at excessive heights, or operating a PWC if there is a prior history of back injury. The current on-product labels say "Jumping wakes or waves can increase the risk of spinal/backbone injuries (paralysis)". The current Kawasaki owner's manual provides: "Slow down before crossing waves. Do not ride if you have a back condition. High speed operation in choppy or rough water may cause back injuries."

Another rare, but unique injury risk with jetboats, is being sucked into the intake side of the pump jet. Current PWC products contain on-product warnings that state: "Keep away from Intake Grate while the engine is on. Items such as long hair, loose clothing, or PFD straps can become entangled in moving parts and result in severe injury or drowning".